Aqua Monta is has such low mineral content that can be compared with the top quality bottled waters worldwide. The real exchange rate RER is the purchasing power of a currency relative to another at current exchange rates and prices.
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Good relations between the two countries are also reflected in the announcement of the establishment of an airline between Montenegro and the United Arab Emirates on which the airline companies of the two countries are currently working on. In addition to the delegation of the UAE Government, the opening ceremony of the street named after the founder of the UAE Sheikh Zayed was attended by representatives of the Atlas Group, Capital City, the architectural studio and the companies which participated in the implementation of the project.
During the visit, they had a series of meetings at the highest level with representatives of the Government of Montenegro, local government and the business sector. Atlas Capital Center is located in the business and administrative part of Podgorica, capital of Montenegro.
On an area of about 90, m2, of which 26, m2 of living and commercial space and 40, m2 of office space, Atlas Capital Centre stands out for its innovative standards of building, high energy efficiency and most modern communication system.
It was then that I realized that I can be successful— said Mr. The award for extraordinary merits for development, improvement and international cooperation was presented to Mr.
I was educated and later began my business career here — said Mr. He added that he hoped that Belgrade will again become the centre of South-East Europe. Text taken from the portal: Festival of Real Estate Investment — FREI is a themed and selective event dedicated to the topics of investing and real estate sector development.
The gathering is intended for the investors and commercial companies in the field of real estate, representatives of state bodies, infrastructure companies, representatives of international institutions, professional and general public.
FREI represents a modern form of exchange of information and experiences, as well as acquiring new knowledge, with the aim of strengthening the bases for a more efficient operation of the entities interested in the real estate investment sector. Festival is organized under the auspices of Prime Minister of Montenegro. Find out more about:. This agency, among other tasks, is entrusted with sale and rent of the biggest object in Montenegro and the region, Atlas Capital Center.
Atlas Capital Center is a model of future construction, technically the most advanced facility in Montenegro, and wider. On the second day of the festival, KneZeviC and Clinton in Cyprus. Cyprus, which is holding the EU Presidency, will host a meeting that will gather Cypriot highest officials. He pointed out that connecting young people is crucial for uniting European countries, and that this conference is of paramount importance for integration of the region. He advised them to travel more, to learn foreign languages and to be tolerant and open.
Panellists of the first part of the programme were the following: During the second part of the programme, students had the opportunity to talk with distinguished young Montengrin leaders, active and reputable in different fields: This panel was aimed at drawing attention of young Montenegrins to the essence of networking, especially regional cooperation and its positive impact on their careers.
The goal is to stress out that networking is crucial for individual and professional development of each individual. On 19 May, the President of Montenegro, Mr. Participants of the meeting addressed the media and the cocktail guests. The President of Montenegro, Mr. Olivier Corlette, the Managing Director of Porto Montenegro also joined the messages communicated by the participants and, as a representative of one of the successful foreign investments in Montenegro, gave his support and highlighted benefits from investing in Montenegro.
The mayor of Cetinje announced Greenfield and Brownfield stimulating packages to support investments in the Royal Capital.
Festival is organized with programme support from Prime Minister of Montenegro Mr. The idea of organizing Festival of real estate and investments - FREI was conceived in , in the context of efforts in Montenegro to keep and promote position of attractive investment destination and to enable professional, structured and experienced contribution to development of real estate sector in the region.
In previous years this Festival was attended by almost all significant Investors present in Montenegro, designer and construction companies, international experts, representatives of regional countries state bodies and large amount of business entities interested in this field.
At final session, on behalf of Programme board, participants were addressed by Mr. Festival aims at bringing together and information exchange between regional State bodies, Investors and commercial companies in the field of real estate, representatives of international institutions and professional public.
FREI consists of multiple programme activities: We invite You to visit this year's manifestation and our exhibition stand and get acquainted with activities and projects of Atlas Group, as one of leading regional and Montenegrin companies.
This agency is entrusted with sale and rent of biggest object in Montenegro and region, Atlas Capital Center. Atlas Capital Centre is a model of future construction, technically the most advanced object in Montenegro, and wider region. This company is one of leading UK alternative investment companies, specialized in investments in sustainable energy sources, real estate, health, financial services, media and entertainment.
Vision of Atlas Group development is to realize all key projects in Montenegro and abroad with our foreign partners, who bring their specific knowledge, advanced technologies and management systems, apart from their equity.
Also look at Festival Program. Summit business leaders of South-East Europe. Summit is a forum of most prominent business leaders from the region, aimed at creating favourable business environment in the region, improvement of trade exchange and joint participation on third markets. He also said that the European crisis will still last so the region should turn to Eastern markets and Russian market.
Dear friends and guests,. At the very beginning I would like to express my gratitude to Mr Bill Clinton and his Foundation for partnership and words of support to the best Montenegrin students. Although a decade has passed, I feel tremor each time I stand in front of these young, successful people.
Tremor for what I should say to them and for responsibility my generation feels wondering what we have achieved and what we will leave as heritage to the new generation of leaders that are receiving awards tonight.
The moment we are living is challenging. The system of values we used to adhere and we still adhere is challenging. It is challenging for the society. There is plenty of insecurity, plenty of uncertainty. It is difficult to orient oneself and find secure, rapid and exact pathways. However, at the same time, that is a pleasant, unique challenge, as it leads to the formation of new paths and new ideas and new visions. My generation experienced similar situation, when a society we grew up in was disappearing.
That situation was hard and uncertain, but what gave us force is the faith in what you know, and determination and self-confidence provided by knowledge, in order to realize the vision you believe in and you love. Experience proved that the success of a vision is reflected in the benefits it had for the others. Therefore, at this moment, I dare say that our faith in the future lays in YOU and your colleagues from previous generations and in the power that YOURS excellence and originality have in order to change the society and create new, better worlds.
Be courageous and confident about the values of what you have learned, because that is an absolute value for eternity. Knowledge is the key word of 21 century.
Knowledge is the main resource, main instrument, and main engine. Educated young people as you are, represent an investment which can only bring good to our society.
Business community and the state should and will always support talent and human potential. It is your duty to make use of your knowledge and to share it generously with the others. And most importantly share love, spread love, love the others, love the society and community and love the future. That is the message I used to repeat to myself and that is what I would like to convey now to you.
That creative and positive force is immeasurable and it will overcome the crisis of every period. In today's times of crisis it is necessary to share kindness, and to show solidarity, humanity and affection. That is the guarantee for your future, and you are the guarantee for the future of Montenegro. Nevertheless, I am sure that your historical and future role received more than enough polite compliments and flattering. Thus, take up immediately your share of rights and burden in carrying on with societal work, based on knowledge and skills the new generation brings.
Be proud because the future of Montenegro is in your hands, the future ever more European and more global. You will represent us in Europe and in the world; you will represent Europe and the world here. And I am sure you will do that brilliantly. At the very end, I would like to thank to the Atlas Foundation team that worked hard in order to make such ceremony. On May 22, , President Clinton will travel to Montenegro.
While there he will, at the invitation of Dr. Organized by Government of Montenegro and the Atlas Foundation, and inspired by President Clinton's philanthropic initiatives, the conference will gather Balkan leaders from the non-profit, political, and business sectors, with the idea of establishing a private-public network that will work on finding a cross border model of sustainable social empowerment.
After the unfortunate occasion of devastating 5. In addition to financial support, Atlas Group has offered Studenica Health Centre in Kraljevo, assistance in care of injured and patients, by offering hospital beds in Meljine Hospital in Meljine in Montenegro, and its medical staff at disposal in providing medical assistance to patients.
We are all Corporate Citizens Now. The velocity of the regional integration into the European Union will depend on a larger scale from the amount and level of capitalization, how much money has been retrieved from admission funds, reaching better rate for the region and private and institutional investitors capital arrival — said Dusko Knezevic, Atlas Group President in World Finance interview, the most prestigious economy magazine in the world.
He has pointed out that during this year and , it is expected that Montenegro and the regional countries will still be under the influence of the Global Economic Crisis. Knezevic also emphasized that Atlas Group is fairly well diversified, which has allowed it to withstand the effects of the economic downturn. Not only did the Atlas Group management maintained the stability, solvency and liquidity of the Group and all its members, but in three banks managed to report a profit in Atlas Group President has explained that there is still a possibility that events may take a turn for the worse once again, as some economics predict a scenario in which contagion from problems in Greece affects Spain, Portugal and other Eurozone countries.
It is evident, however, that mainly developed countries are already beginning to recover, if hesitantly. Hopefully, investors from these countries will gain confidence and returning to invest in Montenegro and the region, bringing the new capital with them. Half a million is a low price - said Chairman of Atlas Group. Montenegro must have foreign investments and this is one of the ways to increase our competitiveness compared to other investment destinations.
Economic citizenship program must be fully transparent process, pursuant to EU regulations. Completion of Atlas capital center in the near future will mark the end of crisis, indicating the beginning of new investment cycle in Montenegro — Knezevic said. Comparing to them, I think that the price of a half of a million is too low. He emphasized that essential for this program would be to be well designed and promoted, to determine, from the very start, the target groups and profiles of investors to be attracted this way.
It must also be fully transparent process, pursuant to EU regulations. Based on all these prerequisites, economic citizenship program has my full support and I will personally try to promote it since I have a lot of friends and business partners from Asia, Near East, Russia, Serbia and other European countries, having direct interest in application.
Could starting the second phase of project Porto Montenegro as well as completion of Atlas capital center be evidence of deathbed of global economic crisis and that we might see better days?
In my opinion, it is very important that our operation has neither ceased nor been questioned, especially because of participation of foreign assets. These are two very important projects and I think their completion in the near future will mark the end of crisis and indicate the beginning of the new investment cycle.
Montenegro has been trying to be profiled as elite tourist destination. What is your assessment of present promotion and general development of Montenegrin tourism? Because of that, it is very important to be presented constantly at fairs, in foreign media as well as in sports and cultural events worldwide. The most important is to work on branding Montenegro as tourist country, having all beauties, unspoiled nature and numerous resources which will attract tourist from all around world.
You are one of a few businessman who operates successfully even during this crisis. What are the plans of Atlas Group, speaking of investments? Besides that, works are starting on the location of current Jadranski sajam in Budva. We realized that job in cooperating with investors from Great Britain, from Future capital partners. Atlas Group will there build one of the most modern expo centers in the region and it will be finished in one year period.
On the other hand, our partners will build luxury hotel, with Windam, worldwide known brand. We will also continue valorization of Meljine complex, which has recently become our property. Foreign investors also have a great deal of interest both in hospital and hotel part of this complex, and we are currently negotiating models of their participation. At the same time, we work intensely and are in contact with foreign investors. We are about to sign partnership contract with Turner Constructions on establishing joint company for South East Europe.
When can we expect completion of works on the most modern building in the region — Atlas capital center? We are doing finishing works and at this pace, apartments will have been finished by end of the year, and entire interior and business part by the spring next year. Do business people in the world think of Montenegro as of destination safe for investing and what should be done to make even more investors place their assets here?
What attracts investors more is simplicity in operations, easier and expeditious procedures and transparent legal frameworks.
In some countries, you just need to go to a law or consultant office, and they will finish entire process of registering company for you, obtaining licenses, etc. Raymond has over 13 years of extensive experience in FX and is specialized in running a sales and execution desk that covers a suite of FX products to institutional clients.
He also held senior positions at RBS and Commerzbank and was the founder and executive director of a proprietary trading firm in London. Annabel Harrison is the international lead for foreign exchange sales and relationship management at LCH. Annabel was appointed to this role in and is responsible for driving global buy- and sell-side FX clearing sales. She initially came to LCH in for one year before rejoining in Annabel holds a degree in management sciences from Loughborough University.
Prior to that, he held a variety of roles in Asian and European business development, product management and sales within Global Link, State Street's multi-asset class e-trading platform, including FX Connect. Additionally, Jonathan worked for Bridge in Asia managing FX, equity, futures and commercial paper trading and information services. He is responsible for the strategic sales and market initiatives for FX futures and focuses on key strategic accounts for the asset class.
Amit joined SGX from Thomson Reuters, where he held multiple roles in sales and business development over 14 years. He also holds a CAIA charter. Cliff has 25 years of work experience in markets, public sector and academia. He has been voted a top five currency strategist by Asiamoney including a 1 ranking in and 3 rankings in the and offshore Renminbi polls. He has also been cited by The Asset magazine. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Southern California and graduate degrees from Harvard and Yale Universities.
Charu Chanana is a senior economist and the deputy head of Asia research at Continuum Economics. At Continuum, her purview includes macroeconomic analysis for the emerging Asian countries, as well as analyzing and monitoring the impact of domestic and external macroeconomic shocks to the region.
Thomas Lam, with more than 15 years of experience in the financial industry, is currently an independent consultant focusing on global economic developments, investment strategy, asset allocation and risk management. He also provides expert consultation to Gerson Lehrman Group clients. He commenced his career in finance and economics in New York at a large money center bank and fixed income hedge fund.
Thomas has been consistently ranked among the top five most accurate economists in the world on forecasting the US economy overall in April last published , , , and according to the "Bloomberg Rankings of Top Forecasters". He was also recognized as the top US inflation forecaster in Prior to that, he was ranked as the second best US economic forecaster by Bloomberg for to In addition, Thomas was exclusively identified by Bloomberg to have accurately predicted the onset of the US recovery 16 months ahead of the official announcement.
Hao Zhou currently serves as a senior emerging markets economist at Commerzbank Singapore, covering economics research and FX strategy for the North Asia region. Prior to this role, he spent eight years with ANZ banking group as a senior China economist based in Shanghai. He is also a senior fellow of the China Chief Economist Forum. Hao appears regularly on global media, and has presented at numerous investor conferences.
Hao was awarded Economist of the Year by China Business News and also top China forecaster according to a Bloomberg survey , Darius is the co-founder and managing partner of QCP Capital, a crypto-focused asset management and trading firm based in Singapore.
Ville got into cryptocurrencies in , and has been an advisor to several cryptocurrency related companies internationally, including exchanges, brokers and other service providers. Ville sees increasing interest in the crypto asset class from institutional investors as infrastructure and regulatory clarity improve, and specialized crypto asset managers emerge with fully compliant investment products and custody solutions.
Su is the co-founder, chief executive officer and chief investment officer of Three Arrows Capital, an FX hedge fund based in Singapore. He is also the co-founder of Sensus Markets, a liquidity provider for listed and OTC cryptocurrency derivatives. Institutions that have a proprietary trading arm but also provide services to trading clients and other market participants do not qualify as buy-side even if they are the clients of service providers. In other words, quotes are given with five digits.
Where rates are below 1, quotes frequently include five decimal places. In , Barclays Capital broke with convention by quoting spot exchange rates with five or six decimal places on their electronic dealing platform.
A number of other banks have now followed this system. Each country determines the exchange rate regime that will apply to its currency. For example, the currency may be free-floating, pegged fixed , or a hybrid. If a currency is free-floating, its exchange rate is allowed to vary against that of other currencies and is determined by the market forces of supply and demand.
Exchange rates for such currencies are likely to change almost constantly as quoted on financial markets , mainly by banks , around the world. A movable or adjustable peg system is a system of fixed exchange rates , but with a provision for the revaluation usually devaluation of a currency.
China was not the only country to do this; from the end of World War II until , Western European countries all maintained fixed exchange rates with the US dollar based on the Bretton Woods system. Nixon in a speech on August 15, , in what is known as the Nixon Shock. Still, some governments strive to keep their currency within a narrow range. As a result, currencies become over-valued or under-valued, leading to excessive trade deficits or surpluses.
From the perspective of bank foreign exchange trading 1 buying rate: Also known as the purchase price, it is the price used by the foreign exchange bank to buy foreign currency from the customer. In general, the exchange rate where the foreign currency is converted to a smaller number of domestic currencies is the buying rate, which indicates how much the country's currency is required to buy a certain amount of foreign exchange.
Also known as the foreign exchange selling price, it refers to the exchange rate used by the bank to sell foreign exchange to customers. It is the average of the bid price and the ask price.
Commonly used in newspapers, magazines or economic analysis. According to the length of delivery after foreign exchange transactions 1 spot exchange rate: It refers to the exchange rate of spot foreign exchange transactions. That is, after the foreign exchange transaction is completed, the exchange rate in Delivery within two working days.
The exchange rate that is generally listed on the foreign exchange market is generally referred to as the spot exchange rate unless it specifically indicates the forward exchange rate. It will be delivered in a certain period of time in the future, but beforehand, the buyer and the seller will enter into a contract to reach an agreement.
When the delivery date is reached, both parties to the agreement will deliver the transaction at the exchange rate and amount of the reservation. Forward foreign exchange trading is an appointment-based transaction, which is due to the different time the foreign exchange purchaser needs for foreign exchange funds and the introduction of foreign exchange risk.
According to the method of setting the exchange rate 1 basic rate: Usually choose a key convertible currency that is the most commonly used in international economic transactions and accounts for the largest proportion of foreign exchange reserves. Compare it with the currency of the country and set the exchange rate. This exchange rate is the basic exchange rate.
The key currency generally refers to a world currency, which is widely used for pricing, settlement, reserve currency, freely convertible, and internationally accepted currency. After the basic exchange rate is worked out, the exchange rate of the local currency against other foreign currencies can be calculated through the basic exchange rate. The resulting exchange rate is the cross exchange rate.
According to the payment method in foreign exchange transactions: Telegraphic exchange rate,Mail transfer rate,Demand draft rate. According to the level of foreign exchange controls 1 Official rate: Usually used by countries with strict foreign exchange controls. The market exchange rate refers to the real exchange rate for trading foreign exchange in the free market. It fluctuates with changes in foreign exchange supply and demand conditions. According to the international exchange rate regime 1 fixed exchange rate: The local currency is determined by the supply and demand relationship of the foreign exchange market, and it is free to rise and fall.
Whether there including inflation 1 nominal exchange rate: The nominal exchange rate eliminating inflation. Balance of payments When a country has a large international balance of payments deficit or trade deficit, it means that its foreign exchange earnings are less than foreign exchange expenditures and its demand for foreign exchange exceeds its supply, so its foreign exchange rate rises, and its currency depreciates.
Interest rate level Interest rates are the cost and profit of borrowing capital. When a country raises its interest rate or its domestic interest rate is higher than the foreign interest rate, it will cause capital inflow, thereby increasing the demand for domestic currency, allowing the currency to appreciate and the foreign exchange depreciate.
Inflation factor The inflation rate of a country rises, the purchasing power of money declines, the paper currency depreciates internally, and then the foreign currency appreciates. If both countries have inflation, the currencies of countries with high inflation will depreciate against those with low inflation. The latter is a relative revaluation of the former.
In general, the huge fiscal revenue and expenditure deficit caused by expansionary fiscal and monetary policies and inflation will devalue the domestic currency. The tightening fiscal and monetary policies will reduce fiscal expenditures, stabilize the currency, and increase the value of the domestic currency. Venture capital If speculators expect a certain currency to appreciate, they will buy a large amount of that currency, which will cause the exchange rate of that currency to rise. Conversely, if speculators expect a certain currency to depreciate, they will sell off a large amount of the currency, resulting in speculation.
The currency exchange rate immediately fell. Speculation is an important factor in the short-term fluctuations in the exchange rate of the foreign exchange market. The foreign exchange supply and demand has caused the exchange rate to change. Economic strength of a country In general, high economic growth rates are not conducive to the local currency's performance in the foreign exchange market in the short term, but in the long run, they strongly support the strong momentum of the local currency.
A market-based exchange rate will change whenever the values of either of the two component currencies change.