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Antofagasta weather essentials
Economy The World Bank classifies Chile as an upper income economy. The main industries are textile, cement, fish processing, minerals, copper, wood, foodstuffs, and transportation equipment.
Later the city was renamed Antofagasta. The first official map of the population and the port of Antofagasta was designed by Jose Santos Prada on 14 September This document set out the grounds of the Melbourne Clark Company, plus 17 blocks and the Main Square. Next year, on 25 January , following a session led by the prefect of the Provincial Department of Mejillones , Manuel Buitrago, founded the Municipality of Antofagasta under Bolivian law of Municipalities, which formed the body of "Municipal Agents", composed of two Germans, one English and six Chileans.
On 27 November , the " Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarril de Antofagasta " signed a contract with the government of Bolivia, in which taxes were removed from mineral exploitation for 15 years. This contract was not ratified by the Congress of Bolivia, which was then analyzed negotiations with Chile. In Bolivia signed a secret treaty of defensive alliance with Peru.
This would be used as an argument 5 years later in Chile, when it unleashed the War of the Pacific. The secret alliance, forbade Bolivia from signing a border treaty with Chile, without consulting with Peru.
However, in Chile and Bolivia signed a border treaty, which replaced the previous treaty of One of its points was not to impose new taxes on individuals, industries and Chilean capital for 25 years. For Bolivia, the contract of between the government and "Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarriles de Antofagasta" was not yet in force, because, according to the Bolivian constitution, all contracts with the Bolivian government had to be approved by Congress.
According to the Bolivian version of events, the contract with the company of saltpeter was incomplete so the congress, to approve the contract, decided to enforce a tax of 10 cents, which did not violate the treaty of , since the contract was not yet in force at that date. Faced with a looming conflict with Chile, Bolivia decided to claim support under the agreement signed with Peru, and the treaty became effective with the Chilean occupation of Antofagasta, on 14 February According to the Chilean version of events, the tax of 10 cents violated the treaty of since according to this, new taxes should not have been imposed on Chilean companies operating in Bolivia.
At the breaking of the boundary treaty by Bolivia, and the cancellation of the contract of the "Compañía de Salitres y Ferrocarriles de Antofagasta", Chile seized Antofagasta, then in Bolivian territory, whose sovereignty had been ratified before After the war, a pact of truce was signed between Bolivia and Chile in , which stated that the territory between the Loa River and parallel 23 would be under the administration of Chile, while Bolivia would be allowed access to the ports of Arica and Antofagasta.
However, both treaties left outstanding issues to be clarified in two subsequent treaties, the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Bolivia in and the Treaty of Lima in Peru. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Bolivia , signed on 20 October , and promulgated on 21 March , established in perpetuity border between Chile and Bolivia. The territory of Antofagasta was definitely within Chile's borders but in return Chile agreed to build a railroad that would link the cities of Arica and La Paz , Bolivia was granted free movement of commerce through Chilean territory.
In , the city of Antofagasta began construction of sewers, because of existing outbreaks of bubonic plague and smallpox. The same year was ordered, so unsatisfactory, the closure of public places, in order to prevent the spread of disease.
On 1 February , the railway workers union of the " Ferrocarril Antofagasta a Bolivia " called for a readjustment of working hours, which was rejected. For this reason, on 6 February, from more than 3, workers went on strike, marching in protest to the Plaza Colon main square.
The army opened fire on protesters, killing 58 people. The fact is known as the " Massacre of Plaza Colon ". In , the Municipality of Antofagasta made a national call for the composition of Antofagasta's anthem.
Antonio Rendic , famous physician and poet of the city, and Juan Bautista Quagliotto , musician, claimed the right to compose the lyrics and music, respectively.
On 2 February , the Mayor Juan de Dios Carmona proposed in an open session in the hall of the Municipality, the establishment of 14 February as the day of the celebration of Antofagasta, despite not being the real founding date.
Later, after the popular approval, the council approved the date. In was inaugurated the Antofagasta center of the University of Chile , after a university reform agreement which meant the autonomy of the University Center North Zone. Finally in , merging the offices of the University of Chile and Technical State University , giving rise to the University of Antofagasta. Barrage of Antofagasta On 18 June , a mudslide devastated much of the city, undermining land, damaged 2, houses and destroyed buildings.
The disaster left 92 dead, 16 missing and about 20, homeless. Although the fatal balance accounted three people dead and hundred injured, structural damage was minor for the magnitude of the event. The construction industry has had remarkable growth as seen in the many recently constructed tall buildings, the extension of the urban area to the north of the city, and different urban projects as the renovation of the entire Costanera Avenue, and walkways of the city center.
In economic development , settled many retail chains and supermarkets as well as various high-quality hotel chains, which promoted business tourism to attract capital and trading partners in mining and port activity. In the municipal elections of , the first woman mayor of the city was elected, Dra. Marcela Hernando , who retired from her political party to run as an Independent.
This allowed her to have diverse support from all sectors of the population of Antofagasta. Experts estimated in that by the city would reach , inhabitants. The urban area of Antofagasta begins abruptly, breaking the monotony of the desert and is located in the coastal plains, south of Mejillones Peninsula and north of " Cerro Coloso ". The Tropic of Capricorn passes in the north of the city, outside the urban area, which is located the Cerro Moreno International Airport.
The Tropic of Capricorn Monument was opened on 21 December in celebration of this. Designed by the arquitect Eleonora Roman, it was created to point the Tropic of Capricorn and to work as a Solar Calendar. Antofagasta was declared a partial common in the border area 20 July , by Supreme Decree No. The city has little vegetation because it is situated in the Atacama Desert , which is the world's driest desert.
The marked aridity and water scarcity are regulated by the Humboldt Current , addition to the high humidity and morning fog known as camanchaca. Furthermore, the Pacific anticyclone generates winds from the south and southwest. The average annual temperature is The Atacama Desert coast is subject to a climate of extreme aridity, and therefore generates a low average annual rainfall of 3.
Between and , the city was affected by floods or landslides on seven occasions: Antofagasta is grounded on rocky ground, hard and tough. Over this layer is a dense soil with sand and medium-sized rock fragments where there are remains of abundant minerals.
According to the general classification of soils, Antofagasta is founded on clay loam soils of the type I and II. The city has an irregular geomorphology by the presence of steep hills — m that are part of Chilean Coast Range , in its eastern edge, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The formation of the rock mass, it makes the shoreline slope is very steep Coloso, south of Antofagasta.
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