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Some of the plan was never put into action, due to the death of Abdul Haq in After meeting the Rwandan President, Paul Kagame in , Ritchie decided immediately to partner with President Kagame to develop the Rwandan economy in the wake of the genocide.
As of , Ritchie co-chairs the PAC. Many of the corporate ties between the U. He believed that she had potential to be one of the great leaders of this generation and thus worked with her to gather private sector support. This was done under the radar, since her popularity in Malawi put her life in danger.
Ritchie served as Director of Mission Control on Steve Fossett's successful attempt to fly the first solo, non-stop circumnavigation of the globe in a balloon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 17 February The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 29 April Not an expert at anything". Put Locals in Charge". Harvard Business Review Suitor Stresses Employee Satisfaction". Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 1 May Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on 8 July After Queen Anne failed to produce a male heir, Henry had her executed on charges of treason adultery against the King was considered treason , incest with her elder brother and witchcraft; ironically, Henry then married one of Anne's ladies in waiting.
Elizabeth was three years old at that time and was also declared illegitimate and lost the title of princess. Thereafter she was addressed as Lady Elizabeth and lived in exile from her father as he married his succession of wives. Henry's last wife Catherine Parr helped reconcile the King with Elizabeth, and she, along with her half-sister, Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon , was reinstated in the line of succession after Prince Edward under the Act of Succession She had been appointed to Elizabeth's household before Anne Boleyn's execution.
Matthew Parker, her mother's favorite priest, took a special interest in Elizabeth's well-being, particularly since a fearful Anne had entrusted her daughter's spiritual welfare to Parker before her death.
Later, Parker would become the first Archbishop of Canterbury Primate, or senior bishop, of England after Elizabeth became queen in One companion, to whom she referred with affection throughout her life, was the Irishman Thomas Butler, later 3rd Earl of Ormonde ob.
In terms of personality, Elizabeth was far more like her mother than her father: Elizabeth also inherited her mother's delicate bone structure, physique, facial features, and onyx black eyes, and petite girth. She did not inherit her father's enormous weight, but from him she inherited her red hair.
There, Elizabeth received her education under Roger Ascham. She came to speak or read six languages: She had an outstanding intellect, like her father and mother. At this point, English Protestantism represented a break from Rome, with recognition of the King as head, or Supreme Governor, of the church, and the beginning of a process of indigenization in which English and a simplified Mass were replacing the Roman liturgy in Latin.
Much of the structure of the Church, its hierarchy the three fold ministry of bishops, priests, and deacons , maintained what is called the 'historic episcopate' ordination by bishops that can be traced back to St. Peter parish system and routine of worship was retained but not obedience to Rome or monasteries or celibacy. Views of the mass were influenced by Martin Luther and John Calvin though it remained a more central aspect of worship than it was for Continental Protestants.
Later, in its 39 Articles it would cite the Bible as the chief authority for all matters of faith and order but sola scriptura was not stressed at this early period.
Sola Fides, or salvation by faith alone, not by purchasing indulgences or as the gift of the pope, was stressed. Clerical dress became simplified as Roman vestments were linked with the idea that Christ dies again for our sins every time the mass is celebrated, which was one of the doctrines that was rejected by all Protestants, including Anglicans. Puritans within as well as outside the Church of England wanted even simpler services, even fewer vestments and a greater stress on prayer, Bible study and preaching, and objected to the retention of bishops and of the mass as papist paganism.
Others, influenced by Calvin, wanted more lay participation in running the Church. These struggles would emerge especially during the Civil War, and during the rule of Oliver Cromwell. For Elizabeth, it was a matter of keeping the Church independent of Rome and of Europe as a symbol of England's emerging economic, cultural and imperial distinctiveness. As long as her Protestant half-brother remained on the throne, Elizabeth's own position remained secure.
In , however, Edward died at the age of fifteen, having left a will that purported to supersede his father's. Contravening the Act of Succession, , it excluded both Mary and Elizabeth from succeeding to the throne and declared Lady Jane Grey to be his heiress.
Lady Jane ascended the throne, but was deposed less than two weeks later. Backed by popular support, Mary rode triumphantly into London, her half-sister Elizabeth at her side. Mary I contracted a marriage with the Spanish prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain , and she worried that the people might depose her and put Elizabeth on the throne in her stead.
Wyatt's Rebellion in sought to prevent Mary from marrying Philip and, after its failure, Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London. There were demands for Elizabeth's execution, but Mary did not wish to put her sister to death. Mary attempted to remove Elizabeth from the line of succession, but Parliament would not allow it.
After two months in the Tower, Elizabeth was put under house arrest under the guard of Sir Henry Bedingfield; by the end of that year, when Mary was falsely rumored to be pregnant, Elizabeth was allowed to return to court at Philip's behest, as he worried that his wife might die in childbirth, in which case he preferred Lady Elizabeth to succeed rather than her next-closest relative, Mary I of Scotland. For the remainder of her reign, Mary persecuted Protestants, and came to be known as "Bloody Mary" among her enemies; although her sister Elizabeth would execute more Catholics than Mary did Protestants, she would do so over a reign many times longer.
Mary urged Elizabeth to take the faith, but the princess lied about her intentions and kept up a skillful show of allegiance to suit her own conscience and ambitions. In , upon Mary I's death, Elizabeth ascended the throne.
She was crowned on January 15, There was no Archbishop of Canterbury at the time; Reginald Cardinal Pole, the last Catholic holder of the office, had died only a few hours after Queen Mary. Because the senior bishops declined to participate in the coronation since Elizabeth was illegitimate under both canon law and statute and since she was a Protestant , the relatively unimportant Owen Oglethorpe, Bishop of Carlisle crowned her.
The communion was celebrated not by Oglethorpe, but by the Queen's personal chaplain, to avoid the usage of the Roman rites. Elizabeth I's coronation was the last one during which the Latin service was used; future coronations used the English service.
She later persuaded her mother's chaplain, Matthew Parker, to become Archbishop. He only accepted out of loyalty to Anne Boleyn's memory, since he found working with Elizabeth difficult. One of the most important concerns during Elizabeth's early reign was religion; she relied primarily on the Machiavellian William Cecil , 1st Baron Burghley for advice on the matter.
The Book of Common Prayer evolved from the original work of Thomas Cranmer , though in its various forms it removed more and more 'papish' practices, such as any reference to sacrifice. Cranmer had set out to Protestantize the Church that his king had separated from Rome. One significant difference in the book was the offering of both bread and wine to communicants.
Citing scripture, the emphasis was on communion as an act of remembrance. The previous ban on kneeling while receiving Communion was omitted and became widely practiced. Papal control over the Church of England had been reinstated under Mary I, but was ended by Elizabeth. The Queen assumed the title "Supreme Governor of the Church of England," rather than "Supreme Head," primarily because several bishops and many members of the public felt that a woman could not be the head of the Church.
The Act of Supremacy required public officials to take an oath acknowledging the Sovereign's control over the Church or face execution for treason. This would become problematic within a few decades for the emerging Free Church men and women of Congregational and Presbyterian and later Baptist persuasion, who advocated separation of church and state and moreover who objected to any creed being made a condition of church membership, or of being a communicant.
Many bishops were unwilling to conform to the Elizabethan religious policy, and were removed from the ecclesiastical bench and replaced by appointees who would submit to the Queen's policies. Her aim, though, was to unite—not divide. She did not always succeed. She also appointed a new Privy Council, removing many Catholic counselors in the process.
Under Elizabeth, factionalism in the council and conflicts at court were greatly silenced. Elizabeth also reduced Spanish influence in England. She adopted a principle of "England for the English. The enforcement of English customs in and the efforts to eradicate Catholicism from Ireland proved unpopular with its inhabitants, as did the Queen's religious policies.
Some have theorized that the more Protestant England became, the more Catholic Ireland became. Soon after her accession, many questioned whom Elizabeth would marry. Her reasons for never marrying are many. It has been suggested she may have felt repulsed by the mistreatment of Henry VIII's wives, or perhaps psychologically scarred by her rumored childhood relationship with Lord Seymour. Contemporary gossip was that she had suffered from a physical defect that she was afraid to reveal, perhaps scarring from smallpox, although this seems unlikely, as she did not contract smallpox until several years into her reign.
There were also contemporary rumors that she would only marry one man, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, with whom she was deeply in love, but whom her council refused to sanction a marriage with, partly due to his family's participation in the Lady Jane Grey matter, and partly what was viewed in some circles as the suspicious death of his first wife. It is also possible that Elizabeth did not wish to share the power of the Crown with another, or, given the unstable political situation, she feared an armed struggle among aristocratic factions if she married someone not seen as equally favorable to all factions.
Or, she could have remained unmarried and instead used the hint of marriage to her country's benefit when dealing with powerful suitors from Europe. Further, marrying anyone would have cost Elizabeth large amounts of money and independence, as all of the estates and incomes Elizabeth inherited from her father, Henry VIII , were only hers until she wed.
A consort would have shared power. Remaining unmarried was a tactic to avoid becoming entangled in European politics once again at the very time that England was beginning to look beyond Europe. She once told Parliament that she was already married, to England.
Indeed, she saw herself as personifying England; by loving England, she made England beloved. Elizabeth wore regal clothes, often with a miniature BCP attached to her belt to emphasize her sovereignty, and her whitened face may have been intended to make her appear to be above gender, though it may also have covered smallpox scars. There is no jewel, be it of never so rich a price, which I set before this jewel; I mean your love.
Though God hath raised me high, yet this I account the glory of my reign, that I have reigned with your loves. I have ever used to set the last Judgement Day before mine eyes, and so to rule as I shall be judged to answer before a higher judge …. For it is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign shall be for your good… her golden or farewell speech to Parliament; Nov.
Levin and Dunn discuss Elizabeth within the context of understandings of femininity, sexuality and power at the time. They discuss how beliefs about sexuality influenced Elizabeth's self-presentation and how she was perceived by others as both a female and as a Protestant ruler.
As a ruler, men deplored her on the one hand, but on the other, the same men courted her and wanted to serve her. She was also involved in competition with Mary. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since BCE.
Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea , and as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called emporia.
From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce allowed its empire to flourish and endure. The latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy , as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east.
In ancient Greece Hermes was the god of trade   commerce and weights and measures,  for Romans Mercurius also god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day of the fifth month. Free trade between states was stifled by the need for strict internal controls via taxation to maintain security within the treasury of the sovereign, which nevertheless enabled the maintenance of a modicum of civility within the structures of functional community life.
The fall of the Roman empire, and the succeeding Dark Ages brought instability to Western Europe and a near collapse of the trade network in the western world. Some trade did occur in the west. For instance, Radhanites were a medieval guild or group the precise meaning of the word is lost to history of Jewish merchants who traded between the Christians in Europe and the Muslims of the Near East. Archaeological evidence Greenberg of the first use of trade-marks are from China dated about BCE.
The emergence of exchange networks in the Pre-Columbian societies of and near to Mexico are known to have occurred within recent years before and after BCE. During the Middle Ages, commerce developed in Europe by trading luxury goods at trade fairs.
Wealth became converted into movable wealth or capital. Banking systems developed where money on account was transferred across national boundaries. Hand to hand markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities. Western Europe established a complex and expansive trade network with cargo ships being the main workhorse for the movement of goods, Cogs and Hulks are two examples of such cargo ships.
The English port city of Bristol traded with peoples from what is modern day Iceland, all along the western coast of France, and down to what is now Spain. During the Middle Ages, Central Asia was the economic center of the world. They were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia. From the 8th to the 11th century, the Vikings and Varangians traded as they sailed from and to Scandinavia.
Vikings sailed to Western Europe, while Varangians to Russia. The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading cities that maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic , between the 13th and 17th centuries. Vasco da Gama pioneered the European Spice trade in when he reached Calicut after sailing around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of the African continent. Prior to this, the flow of spice into Europe from India was controlled by Islamic powers, especially Egypt.
The spice trade was of major economic importance and helped spur the Age of Discovery in Europe. Spices brought to Europe from the Eastern world were some of the most valuable commodities for their weight, sometimes rivaling gold.
In the 16th century, the Seventeen Provinces were the centre of free trade, imposing no exchange controls , and advocating the free movement of goods. Trade in the East Indies was dominated by Portugal in the 16th century, the Dutch Republic in the 17th century, and the British in the 18th century.
It criticised Mercantilism , and argued that economic specialisation could benefit nations just as much as firms. Since the division of labour was restricted by the size of the market, he said that countries having access to larger markets would be able to divide labour more efficiently and thereby become more productive.
Smith said that he considered all rationalisations of import and export controls "dupery", which hurt the trading nation as a whole for the benefit of specific industries. In , the Dutch East India Company , formerly the world's largest company, became bankrupt , partly due to the rise of competitive free trade.
In , David Ricardo , James Mill and Robert Torrens showed that free trade would benefit the industrially weak as well as the strong, in the famous theory of comparative advantage. In Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Ricardo advanced the doctrine still considered the most counterintuitive in economics:. The ascendancy of free trade was primarily based on national advantage in the mid 19th century.
That is, the calculation made was whether it was in any particular country's self-interest to open its borders to imports. John Stuart Mill proved that a country with monopoly pricing power on the international market could manipulate the terms of trade through maintaining tariffs , and that the response to this might be reciprocity in trade policy.
Ricardo and others had suggested this earlier. This was taken as evidence against the universal doctrine of free trade, as it was believed that more of the economic surplus of trade would accrue to a country following reciprocal , rather than completely free, trade policies.
This was followed within a few years by the infant industry scenario developed by Mill promoting the theory that government had the duty to protect young industries, although only for a time necessary for them to develop full capacity.
This became the policy in many countries attempting to industrialise and out-compete English exporters. Milton Friedman later continued this vein of thought, showing that in a few circumstances tariffs might be beneficial to the host country; but never for the world at large.
The Great Depression was a major economic recession that ran from to the late s. During this period, there was a great drop in trade and other economic indicators. The lack of free trade was considered by many as a principal cause of the depression causing stagnation and inflation. Also during the war, in , 44 countries signed the Bretton Woods Agreement , intended to prevent national trade barriers, to avoid depressions.
It set up rules and institutions to regulate the international political economy: These organisations became operational in after enough countries ratified the agreement. In , 23 countries agreed to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to promote free trade. The European Union became the world's largest exporter of manufactured goods and services, the biggest export market for around 80 countries.
Today, trade is merely a subset within a complex system of companies which try to maximize their profits by offering products and services to the market which consists both of individuals and other companies at the lowest production cost. A system of international trade has helped to develop the world economy but, in combination with bilateral or multilateral agreements to lower tariffs or to achieve free trade , has sometimes harmed third-world markets for local products. Protectionism is the policy of restraining and discouraging trade between states and contrasts with the policy of free trade.
This policy often takes of form of tariffs and restrictive quotas. Protectionist policies were particularly prevalent in the s, between the Great Depression and the onset of World War II. Islamic teachings encourage trading and condemn usury or interest. Judeao-Christian teachings prohibit fraud and dishonest measures, and historically also forbade the charging of interest on loans.