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In spite of several German air attacks by JU on November 7th, the convoy landed safely troops on November 8th about hours and sent a signal: Again landing at Bougie on November 11th about hours was successful but several air and submarines attacks on shipping were very dangerous.

On November 12th 2 transport ships were sunk, 12 ships,1 aircraft carrier,1 cruiser and 2 destroyers were damaged. On November 13th 1 transport ship was sunk,14 ships, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers were damaged. On November 13th hours she left Algiers for Gibraltar, were she arrived on November 15th hours for repairs. Enemy convoy consisted of 2 ships a tons each and one smaller with 4 big escort ships with guns of mm and MGs.

At first convoy was shelled with flares and artillery fire directed by Lieut. One enemy shell penetrated into boiler room, hit and stick into boiler shield. Moreover small fire was extinguished and one PO and one seaman were wounded. The fiercest struggles in the Atlantic took place between August and May when losses in shipping were about Her first duty was a convoy Greenock- Argentia and St.

She arrived Halifax without problems only some minor damages caused by stormy weather. Another difficulties were fuelling at sea from tanker or another big ship. But after leaving Argentia with another convoy she met THE heavy weather again and her bow was damaged, so she returned St. Johns for temporary repairs. Christmas holiday she spent in Argentia. First months she spent in dockyards in general overhaul and re-armament, this time cdr.

Somewhere miles North were: On January 22 weather improved and first asdick contact was made with the German U-boat. Some attacks were made with depth charges without results. On January 23rd afternoon the German reconnaissance aircraft appeared and from this time escort expected enemy air attacks.

On January 24th before noon snow storm covered armament partly with ice. About noon same day the convoy was attacked by 3 aircraft He Two enemy were shot down by heavy anti aircraft fire from escort and ships.

On January 25th afternoon six enemy torpedo-bombers tried to attack convoy but were forced to withdraw by heavy anti aircraft fire. On January 26th before noon Russian fighter-bomber came and provided air cover. Up to February 1st convoy was under Russian air cover. On February 3rd one ship was torpedoed by the German U-boat and sunk, the crew was rescued.

Fortunately came another snow storm and the Germans did not find out convoy, who changed course farther North. At first, the troubles were not caused by the Germans,but by stormy weather,ships of convoy were unable to keep their stations and dispersed in all directions. Escort ships had plenty troubles to find them and to send to their stations. Six ships were damaged and returned to UK. Moreover two British vessels: But after some time, all ships were forced to withdraw to Seydisfjord because of stormy weather.

But later on, the weather changed and strong winds caused that large ice field closed entrance to the fjord. Unfortunately situation did not change for several days, there was short of fresh drinking water and provision.

At last after nearly 3 weeks one British battleship came through ice fields and supplied PIORUN with fresh water, provision and with 3 bags of mail! When the convoy reached Barents Sea, screening force called Seydisjord for fuel oil and back near Bear island to wait another convoy from Murmansk.

Convoy consisted with 10 transport ships and soon met the stormy weather. Right after storm on March 3rd, the convoy was attacked by two German formations each nine JU - one ship was sunk and two planes shot down. Part of the crew was rescued by trawler. The German air bases were in miles distance. When the convoy passed between Spitsbergen and Bear island about hours, the German Junkers attacked again. One ship was bombed and sunk and two planes were shot down.

At night the storm abated a little and in this situation two ships were torpedoed and sunk with total loss of crews. Convoy RA was directed to Scotland. On February 21th, the convoy was attacked by the German U-boats and two ship were sunk.

In mean time C. A3, convoy ON consisted of 63 ships,that they were attacked by "Wolf Pack". This was job of Sub. Both ships were in sinking condition. This time again C. The losses in this convoy: Two torpedoes hit tanker and a big fire broke out. According British aircraft the tanker was badly damaged and on fire. But later, the fire was extinguished and tanker was towed to nearby Messina. Salvo from distance m was well aimed, two torpedoes hit and ship immediately sank.

Her escort at first started to rescue the crew and later attacked DZIK with 12 depth charges. The convoy arrived there without troubles on June 23rd.

She arrived Greenock on August 19th. The fleet arrived Gibraltar on June 23rd. First thing was landing of Allied troops on three small islands between Tunesia and Malta: Pantellaria, Lampedusa and Linosa, in order to destroy artillery positions and to have there air fields and supply depots.

The Allied land forces were about They had in disposition: For this operation were: C-in-C of this armada was Admiral A. Air support belongs to the British and American wings, altogether about aircrafts various types and destinations. The Polish ships took part in this operation as follows: Patrols were very difficult because of Italian and German aircrafts.

At Algiers Admiral called all commanding officers of this task force for briefing. The battleships and cruisers fired salvo after salvos to destroy the Italian shoare batteries and other fortifications.

Meanwhile heavy bombers from North Africa bombarded the enemy. We know the actual situation during this invasion from frequent radio reports and also from the German radio in english language. I remember for example a warning: In spite of this Allied forces proceed according plan but during the first days and nights fighting was very heavy.

The American and the British troops slowly going ahead. During night July 16th she was torpedoed in surprised air attack. In effect aircraft carrier got list and in this state returned Malta. During night of July 21st this force arrived near the city Crotone.

There factories of ammunition and armament were bombarded by ships guns nearly half an hour. It was a complete surprise attack, no Italian reaction at all. Because the Italian naval base Taranto was nearby so our units withdraw with maximum speed back to Malta. The enemy air attacks were not successful against ships and landing crafts, but more troubles were from rough sea and breakers.

Same problems had the American troops in southern coast of Sicily, but later they moved North toward Palermo. Allied troops fought not only with the Italians but also with the German forces from which they encountered a stiff resistance. Despite for all that, allied troops on August 17th entered Messine and after 38 days of fighting Sicily was conquered.

Eight Italian submarines were sunk and three U-boats. Allied losses at sea: One shell of above mentioned battleships had about one ton of weight! The operation started with bombardment by heavy bombers from Africa and shelling by hundreds of field artillery from Sicily, the battlerships and cruisers from sea for some hours.

Then big armada of landing crafts from Sicily started towards main land. But it was no opposition because Italian and German withdraw in mean time to better positions. Because of mountainous character of a region,Allied progress was slow and difficult. The troops consisted of 5th American Army and some British and Canadian divisions. Northern Attack Force consisted of the British ships. But German counter attacked on land with support of artillery and aircrafts.

Situation of landing troops was critical and in this time the British Fleet saved the situation. From the relation of Lieut. Moreover German attacked with strong formations of dive bombers and also with rocket-bombs guided by radio. Of course the Polish destroyers took part in shelling enemy position ashore, fighting with enemy aircrafts and submarines. Meanwhile the Italian fleet surrounded and proceed to Malta between September th On September 26th after long and bloody fighting German withdraw from Salerno and some ships were directed into another operations.

Allied forces win the battle with loss of about 7. Speed of this unit was about 32 knots! On September 29th this unusual unit arrived La Valetta. After 3 hours later when attacks were over it was found that radio station and log were damaged.

Next day DZIK torpedoed a barge with torpedo with "zero depth" setting - successfully. Then again two barges! Convoy was met on October 3rd and going North into this dangerous area. About hours some hundred meters astern exploded one torpedo. They fired flares and started depth charge attacks. According German sources it was U who escaped. Same day at evening convoy ships reported some U-boat on surface at 12 miles distance.

Investigation by Support Group brought no results. In this time one explosion occurred astern. Ammunition in powder magazine exploded, bottom fuel tanks were ripped open and fuel set on fire. Only one officer left alive - Lieut-cdr. This was example of great courage and devotion in the name of solidarity the British and Polish seamen.

Moreover PO,s and Seamen. Their duties were patrolling Atlantic near Azores against German U-boats. From now the British long distance planes had landing at Azores from New Foundland and back.

This was disastrous in effect to U-boats operating there. In two first months Germans lost 25 U-boats in so called Atlantic Gap. The islands of Aegean Sea were still occupied by German land and air forces, therefore were dangerous to Allied shipping in this area.

Next day they stopped and sunk with artillery fire one cutter, the crew: Part of crew and soldiers were evacuated ashore. At evening the destroyers left for patrol south of islands Amorgos and Levitha. But this time German counter-attacked with another "Wunder Waffe": Altogether during that night on November 11th the unit was attacked 14 times! Meanwhile the destroyers patrolled sea coast from islands Ischia and Capri.

PIORUN started with flare lights and gun fire, but enemy left with very great speed towards shore, then our unit returned to Neapol. In this convoy were 12 transport ships with troops and supplies. Convoy was attacked by the German aircrafts very soon at afternoon by 6 He and Do with glider bombs then with torpedoes. Altogether this day convoy was attacked 10 times! Only one ship was sunk but soldiers were rescued soldiers.

Next day again 15 aircrafts Ju attacked convoy with bombs. On December 1st convoy arrived Alexandria. After that came back to Freetown on February 17th Allied ships were under command of the American Rear-Adm. LUCAS and consisted of 4 cruisers, 24 destroyers, 2 gunboats, 2 anti aircraft's ships, 2 submarines and 43 minesweepers.

For transport of They met later with stiff resistance of the German and fighting lasted up to mid of May. Then convoy was again attacked but this time by the German aircraft Ju without success. Therefore British decided to attack her again but this time with aircrafts. To do this job were established two task forces: The 1st - consisted of 6 aircraft carriers with escort of 10 destroyers.

In mean time at sea there were two convoys to and from Murmansk. Above mentioned task forces left Scapa Flow about noon on March 30th. They arrived there on April 3rd. Relation according to the Lieut-Z. Our radio receivers were on, for news passed constantly from the aircraft carriers near the enemy occupied shores of Norway. Most of the German planes were on patrols looking for Murmansk convoys. Bombs made considerable damages in the battleship super structure, killing and wounding crew members.

On April 26th attack was made early morning when planes started hours and returned hours. Four enemy ships were sunk or damaged and one auxiliary vessel. Lost 1 torpedo-bomber Barracuda and 4 fighter planes. Moreover they shot down two German sea- planes and lost two Barracuda. This force returned to Scapa Flow on May 7th. Altogether they sunk one freighter and damaged three small ships and some minesweepers.

They shot down too 4 German He and damaged one FW One own aircraft did not returned back. This force returned to Scapa Flow on May 16th Before the invasion, in Great Britain were concentrated 23 division of infantry, 10 armoured divisions and 4 divisions of paratroops. The Air armada consisted of 4 air armies altogether The Naval armada consisted of various fighting ships and about various landing crafts.

Altogether on the British soil were ready nearly 2, On June 5th about midnight a heavy air raid by Allied bombers took place against the enemy fortifications, rail and road junctions, bridges and railway stations from Cherbourg to Le Havre in Normandy.

Once again at dawn another heavy air raid against German shore fortifications was made by British and American heavy bombers escorted by 2. Utah, Omaha and Eastern sectors for the British: Ahead of the landing crafts were motor barges with rockets mm shelling beaches from short distances. About hours landing crafts in sector S came to beaches and fierce fighting has began. Results of D-Day were favourable: The American and the British troops established footholds an enemy shores about km deep and km wide.

Moreover in spite of rough sea nearly Similar amount of armament and ammunition received the American sectors. British and Canadians - 4. The Flotilla was composed of: Air reconnaissance before dusk on 8th June had shown four enemy ships proceeding to the NE from Brest. JONES adapted following tactic: Line Ahead for comfort and Line of Bearing for Action - in addition a manoeuvre" White Pendant" to avoid enemy torpedoes and crash into enemy for short distance battle. Between Ile de Batz and Ile de Vierge they slow down to 18 knots.

The flotilla being disposed with divisions in Line Ahead with 20th Division two miles to the northward of the 19th Division and a little ahead. Distance between the ships in division were 4 cables. Moreover each division executed 30 degrees zigzag from main course, against eventual U-boat attacks. In case of contact with enemy, divisions were told previously to stop zigzaging and to take a Line of Bearing.

Eventual German torpedo attack were not expected at the distance more than Therefore the British flotilla was forced to split up to follow the scattering German ships. Big Z- 32 was hit several times and ZH-1 was hit in boiler and was put out of action. But shortly after that Z escaped North unfortunately she came under fire of 20th Division. Decision was in compliance with the opinion of Torpedo Control Officer: One shell exploded at the bridge of TARTAR , 4 men were killed and 9 wounded including captain, moreover radar and communication were damaged, boiler nr.

Z withdraw in direction of Isle Vierge. The torpedo boat T 24 escape undamaged. Thanks to several means of identifications like IFF on radar screen and others, fatal engagement between Allied ships were avoided. At last Z disoriented ran firmly aground on the rocks of the Ile de Batz heavily afire. Malo unexpectedly ran into a force of seven German M-class minesweepers escorting small convoy. Now according to the relation of Lieut. Des milliers d'écoles primaires et secondaires sont ouvertes, la plupart uniquement pour les garçons, alors que les universités de Calcutta, Bombay et Madras avaient été ouvertes en , juste avant la rébellion.

Cette politique contribue à créer une bureaucratie qualifiée et efficace qui alimente l' Indian Civil Service. Le programme des écoles, collèges et universités suit les standard britanniques, y compris l'histoire européenne et la culture britannique, ce qui n'empêche pas les organisations étudiantes de devenir des bastions indépendantistes à partir des années [ 28 ].

La Compagnie des Indes orientales puis le gouvernement colonial encouragent la construction de nombreuses lignes de chemin de fer. Dès , le gouverneur général Lord Dalhousie établit un plan de construction de grandes lignes connectant les principales régions d'Inde. Les investissements privés, garantis par le gouvernement, affluent et le réseau s'étend rapidement [ 30 ] , alors que certains États princiers construisent également leurs propres lignes.

L'industrie se développe également. Si leur situation n'est pas désastreuse en général, la plupart des paysans restent à un niveau de subsistance parfois rompu par des famines, celles de et de en particulier, faisant 20 à 25 millions de morts [ 35 ]. À partir des années se développe une petite classe moyenne indienne [ 36 ] , éduquée et souvent employée dans l'administration coloniale [ 37 ].

Elle commence à s'intéresser à la politique dans un contexte où une autre colonie britannique, le Canada , se voit accorder le statut de dominion avec des institutions démocratiques indépendantes [ 38 ] et que des orientalistes comme Monier Monier-Williams et Max Müller présentent dans leurs travaux l'Inde ancienne comme une grande civilisation [ 36 ].

Dans le même temps, des incidents rappellent les discriminations raciales dont sont victimes les Indiens de la part des Britanniques et de l'administration, comme l'utilisation de troupes indiennes lors de campagnes impériales Seconde guerre anglo-afghane ou des tentatives de contrôle sur la presse en langue vernaculaire Vernacular Press Act de [ 36 ]. La décision du vice-roi Lord Ripon de revenir partiellement sur la loi Ilbert Ilbert Bill de , qui accordait un statut égal aux juges indiens et britanniques dans la présidence du Bengale, transforme le mécontentement en action politique [ 37 ].

Le 28 décembre , des travailleurs et intellectuels issus de la nouvelle classe moyenne — pour la plupart éduqués dans les universités fondées par les Britanniques comme celles de Bombay, Calcutta et Madras et familiers des idées des philosophes politiques britanniques — se réunissent à Bombay. Au nombre de 70, ils fondent le Congrès national indien.

Womesh Chandra Bonerjee est élu premier président. Le Congrès est alors composé d'une élite indienne occidentalisée, sans l'objectif d'en élargir la base. Pendant la même période, des propositions de réformes sociales sont mises en avant.

À partir de , le mouvement de réforme s'ancre au sein du Congrès national indien. Parmi ces derniers, Bal Gangadhar Tilak mobilise les Indiens autour d'une identité explicitement hindoue [ 41 ]. Le vice-roi George Curzon met en place un certain nombre de réformes administratives [ 42 ]. En , il décide de diviser en deux la province la plus importante, la présidence du Bengale: Cette décision, perçue comme communautariste, est très mal reçue. L'élite hindoue du Bengale, parmi laquelle beaucoup de propriétaires louent des terres à des paysans musulmans, proteste [ 43 ].

La classe moyenne bengalie les Bhadraloks craint d'être mise en minorité dans la nouvelle province par les Biharis et les Oriyas et ressent cette décision comme une punition contre leur activisme politique. L'agitation s'étend à partir de Calcutta aux autres régions du Bengale quand les étudiants rentrent dans les villages auprès de leur famille. Quelques-uns s'engagent dans le terrorisme, avec peu de succès en raison d'un intense travail de la police [ 45 ]. Le mouvement Swadeshi handicape lourdement les importations de textile britannique: Toutefois, les protestations hindoues contre la partition du Bengale et le fait qu'elles s'organisent autour de la symbolique de la déesse Kali , conduisent l'élite musulmane indienne à créer en la Ligue musulmane.

Celle-ci est en faveur de la partition car elle crée une majorité musulmane dans la province orientale ce qui permettrait aux musulmans d'accéder plus facilement à des responsabilités politiques [ 47 ]. En , les réformes Morley-Minto du nom de John Morley , Secrétaire d'État à l'Inde, et du comte de Minto , vice-roi accordent aux Indiens un rôle limité dans les législatures centrale et provinciales. La communauté musulmane reçoit un électorat séparé et une double représentation [ 48 ].

La partition du Bengale est annulée en La nouvelle est annoncée lors du durbar de Delhi au cours duquel le roi George V est couronné Empereur des Indes. Il y annonce également le transfert de la capitale du Raj de Calcutta à Delhi [ 49 ]. Dès le déclenchement de la Première Guerre mondiale , le gouvernement impérial indien annonce qu'il peut fournir deux divisions et une brigade de cavalerie, plus une division supplémentaire en cas d'urgence [ 50 ]. Finalement, environ 1,4 million d'Indiens et de soldats britanniques de l'Armée britannique des Indes participent à la guerre, principalement en Irak et au Moyen-Orient.

La participation des Indiens a de fortes répercussions sur l'imaginaire collectif, notamment grâce à la presse qui raconte la bravoure des soldats de l'Empire aux côtés des britanniques [ 51 ]. L'Inde occupe par la suite une place plus importante sur la scène internationale: La guerre conduit également les leaders politiques indiens à demander plus d'autonomie [ 51 ]. Par exemple en , au sein du Conseil législatif impérial , Madan Mohan Malaviya , parlant des attentes créées par la guerre en Inde, déclare: Au sein du Congrès , après la division de entre les modérés et les extrémistes, l'activité politique est restée limitée jusqu'en , date à laquelle Bal Gangadhar Tilak sort de prison.

En , un accord est trouvé avec les modérés Gopal Krishna Gokhale et Pherozeshah Mehta qui permet au groupe de Tilak de réintégrer le Congrès [ 51 ]. Annie Besant notamment souhaite démontrer la supériorité de cette nouvelle forme d'organisation, qui a alors un certain succès en Irlande , sur la violence politique qui a agité le sous-continent entre et [ 54 ].

La ligue de Tilak se concentre sur l'ouest de l'Inde et celle de Besant sur la présidence de Madras, le Sind et le Gujarat , alors terre de mission pour le Congrès [ 54 ]. Les deux ligues, par leur communication politique et notamment des journaux, affiches, tracts, chansons politico-religieuses, réussissent à attirer de nouvelles personnes et notamment parmi les non-Brahnes, commerçants, fermiers, étudiants et petits fonctionnaires [ 54 ]. Les autorités britanniques réagissent en imposant des restrictions aux ligues, comme l'interdiction de meetings étudiants et l'interdiction de voyager dans certaines provinces pour Tilak et Besant [ 54 ].

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi rentre en Inde en Déjà connu pour ses activités en faveur des droits des Indiens en Afrique du Sud , Gandhi suit le conseil de son mentor Gopal Krishna Gokhale et choisit de ne faire aucune déclaration publique pendant la première année de son retour et au contraire de voyager, pour observer le pays, et écrire [ 55 ].

Pendant ses années en Afrique du Sud , Gandhi, avocat de formation, a représenté la communauté indienne en théorisant une technique de résistance non-violente face à l'autorité coloniale. Il baptise cette stratégie Satyagraha ou Lutte pour la Vérité [ 56 ]. Pour Gandhi, la Satyagraha est différente de la résistance passive: Jusque dans les années , la présence britannique en Inde n'est pour Gandhi pas le principal obstacle au Swaraj , mais plutôt l'incapacité des Indiens à créer une société moderne [ 55 ].

En , Gandhi fait son retour sur la scène politique indienne au Bihar: Gandhi, rejoint par Rajendra Prasad , se voit ordonner de quitter la région par les autorités locales mais refuse [ 58 ]. Le vice-roi à Delhi, attentif à maintenir le calme pendant la guerre, obtient la levée de l'ordre d'expulsion et les Britanniques finissent par céder aux demandes des fermiers. Gandhi multiplie ce type d'actions de Satyagraha: L'agitation politique et la poursuite de la guerre poussent les Britanniques à accorder des concessions.

Bien que ces avancées soient limitées, c'est la première fois que les Britanniques proposent une forme de gouvernement représentatif dans une colonie non blanche. Toutefois, l'adoption en du Defence of India Act autorise le gouvernement colonial à interner les dissidents politiques sans procès ou à censurer la presse [ 60 ]. C'est grâce à cette loi que sont notamment emprisonnés les frères Ali en ou Annie Besant en [ 60 ].

Le Government of India Act de élargit les pouvoirs des législatures provinciales et impériale [ 61 ]. Les provinces sont administrées selon un système dit de dyarchie: Dans les législatures provinciales, les Britanniques continuent d'avoir un certain contrôle en réservant des sièges à certains intérêts ou en favorisant des candidats ruraux moins revendicatifs [ 61 ]. Le principe de représentation communautaire, initié par la réformes Minto-Morley et approuvé par le Pacte de Lucknow, est réaffirmé avec des sièges réservés pour les musulmans, les sikhs, les chrétiens, les Anglo-Indiens, les Européens à la fois au niveau provincial et au niveau central [ 61 ].

Les réformes de , bien que les plus avancées, offrent toutefois aux Indiens des pouvoirs très limités [ 61 ]. Le mouvement indépendantiste continue par ailleurs d'être réprimé. En , après plusieurs jours d'agitation le brigadier-général Reginald Dyer interdit les réunions publiques dans la ville à majorité sikhe d' Amritsar.

Le 13 avril , il fait tirer à balles réelles et sans sommation sur un rassemblement non armé d'hommes, de femmes et d'enfants. Dyer est relevé de ses fonctions mais devient un héros en Grande-Bretagne parmi les personnes en lien avec le Raj [ 64 ]. En , Gandhi lance sa campagne de non-coopération: Dans le même temps, il réorganise largement le Congrès national indien pour le transformer en un véritable mouvement de masse, ouvrant l'adhésion même aux Indiens les plus pauvres [ 58 ].

Le succès de ce mouvement non-violent est une surprise pour les Britanniques. Toutefois, le 5 février , une manifestation du mouvement de non-coopération à Chauri Chaura tourne mal et fait plusieurs morts. Gandhi suspend alors le mouvement. Il est arrêté et condamné à six ans de prison. Il est libéré deux ans plus tard, en [ 65 ]. En , la Commission Simon visite l'Inde afin d'envisager de possibles réformes institutionnelles.

Cette visite est l'occasion de grandes manifestations à travers le pays [ 66 ]. Le 26 janvier à Lahore , lors de sa session annuelle, le Congrès présidé par Jawaharlal Nehru adopte une déclaration demandant le Purna Swaraj , c'est-à-dire l'indépendance complète. Le 12 mars de la même année, Gandhi entame la marche du sel afin d'encourager les Indiens à violer le monopole d'État sur le sel: Face à la montée du mouvement indépendantiste, le gouvernement britannique réunit en novembre une première conférence de la table ronde.

Le Congrès, dont une partie des leaders est en prison, n'y participe pas. Peu d'avancées ont lieu. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar y fait la demande de la création d'électorats séparés pour les Intouchables Dalits [ 67 ]. Le 5 mars , Gandhi et le vice-roi Lord Irwin s'accordent sur un pacte: Gandhi représente le Congrès à la seconde conférence de la table ronde, de septembre à décembre à Londres.

Le Congrès, qui entend représenter l'ensemble des Indiens, ne parvient toutefois pas à s'entendre avec les représentants musulmans et dalits conviés par les Britanniques. L'arbitrage communautaire rendu à l'issue de la conférence par le Premier ministre britannique Ramsay MacDonald qui tend à créer des électorats séparées hautes castes, basses castes, musulmans, bouddhistes, sikhs, chrétiens indiens, Anglo-Indiens, Européens et Dalits est refusé par Gandhi qui engage une grève de la faim en septembre Mis sous pression, Ambedkar signe un accord avec Gandhi, le Pacte de Poona: Une troisième conférence de la table ronde se tient à la fin de l'année Après les conférences de la table ronde, le parlement britannique adopte le Government of India Act de Cette loi permet la création d'assemblées législatives indépendantes dans toutes les provinces , la création d'un gouvernement central avec à la fois les provinces et les États princiers et la protection des minorités musulmanes [ 68 ].

Dans le même temps, la loi divise l'électorat en 19 catégories religieuses et sociales musulmans, sikhs, chrétiens, propriétaires, commerce et industrie, etc.

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